The Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile is unicameral and headed by a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker. The creation of this democratically-elected body has been one of the major changes that His Holiness the Dalai Lama has brought about in his continuous effort to introduce a democratic system based on a unique blend of traditional values and modern norms.

The 16th Tibetan Parliament-in-Exile has 45 members: 10 representatives from each of the three traditional provinces of Tibet i.e., U-Tsang, Dhotoe and Dhomey; two from each of the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism and the pre-Buddhist Bon religion; and two representing each of the Tibetan communities in North America and Europe; plus one from Asia and Australasia (excluding India, Nepal and Bhutan).